Alginate Sustainable Fibre and Medical Textile

What is Alginate?

Alginate is a biopolymer, an alternative plant fibre that is extracted from seaweed. It is a soft fibre that is often blended with other fibres to improve its resilience and although it’s processing produces chemical pollutants, it is biodegradable and nutrient-rich and is said to have antibacterial properties. The use of alginate can be historically traced as far back as 3000 BC within food and medicine.

Seaweed_410_tcm18-207061

Unknown, (2011), 3M_Tegaderm_GellingAlginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.allegromedical.com/wound-care-c541/tegagen-hg-alginate-dressing-4-x-4-p191032.html[Accessed 26 November 14].

The process of Calcium alginate

When a soluble calcium salt, such as calcium chloride, is added to the filtered extract, solid calcium alginate is formed.

If the calcium solution and filtered extract are mixed carefully, the calcium alginate can be formed as fibres – bad mixing gives a gelatinous solid.

This fibrous material can be readily separated on a metal screen (sieve) and washed with water to remove excess calcium. It is then stirred in dilute acid and converted to alginic acid, which retains the fibrous characteristics of the calcium alginate.

y4765e05

McHugh, (1987), Flow chart for the production of sodium alginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4765e/y4765e08.htm#TopOfPage [Accessed 26 November 14].

 

IMG_8152

Speakman A 1895, The precipitation process of sodium alginate/water solutions. Woodhead Publishing, England.

 

Moisture properties of alginic acid-based fibres

 

  • Common Alginate is a dry solid even though it contains 30% water.
  • Insoluble alginate fibres when precipitated from solutions can retain large quantities of water, even when subjected to pressure.
  • When dried the insoluble alginate fibres will swell on absorption of water.

 

Thermal properties of alginic acid based fibres

 

  • Sodium alginate with a degree of polymerization of 500 can be stored, without observable change, for three years of temperatures between 10c and 20c. But temperatures above 50c, degradation will occur. The presence of moisture increases at the rate of degradation.

 

How is it sustainable?

Alginate is sustainable due to its degradation. The degradation of alginate is due to a variety of factors, which include light, water, atmospheric composition, fungi and microorganisms. Moisture plays an important part of degradation due to microorganisms and bacteria.

 

Nonwoven alginate fabrics have attracted attention as disposable textiles. Shorter production cycles, high flexibility and versatility and low production cost are some of the claimed advantages.

 

Why would Alginate work well as a medical textile?

 

When considering Alginate as a medical fibre it is non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, biocompatible, sterilizable and offers cheap processing by nonwoven technologies. In general, it can be thought that the short-term degradation of textile materials is an undesirable property; however, this very property is useful for alginate products in disposable wound dressings.

 

3M_Tegaderm_GellingAlginate

 

Unknown, (2011), 3M_Tegaderm_GellingAlginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.allegromedical.com/wound-care-c541/tegagen-hg-alginate-dressing-4-x-4-p191032.html[Accessed 26 November 14].

What are the alginate-dressing properties?

 

  • They have high absorbency – a high retention capacity
  • Good integrity ensures that the fabric has sufficient strength when being handled.
  • Flexible to provide comfort ability
  • Permeable to gases to allow sufficient oxygenation of tissues – promotes natural healing.

 

  • Good quality stable fibres have been produced from mixed salts of sodium and calcium alginate, and processed into non-woven fabric that is used in wound dressings.
  • They have very good wound healing and haemostatic properties and can be absorbed by body fluids because the calcium in the fibre is exchanged for sodium from the body fluid to give a soluble sodium alginate.
  • It is then easier to remove these dressings from large open wounds or burns since they do not adhere to the wound.

 

 

Modifications of alginate

 

Muri and Brown (2005: 105) suggest, “Much attention has been focused on absorption, retention properties, non-immunogenic, bioerodible implantation composition and incorporation of medicants to assist the natural haemostatic property of the fibre”

 

Muri and Brown (2005: 104) also state that “Gilding has patented a porous fibrous material alginate which comprises of cation which is an enzyme co-factor, the cation provides exchangeable ions which have wound healing properties and increased absorbency”

 

 

Consumers

Some multinational pharmaceutical companies have launched lines of adhesive bandages and gauze pads based on calcium alginate fibres. They are being promoted as helping blood to clot faster twice as fast.

Pharmaceutical Companies:

  • Kaltostat dressings
  • Sorbsan Surgical Dressings
  • Urgosorb dressing
  • Medihoney ApiNate Dressing

-Limpeza-do-Alginate-do-c-lcio-do-mel-de-Manuka

 

Unknown, (2008), Alginate Dressing -limpeza-do-alginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://galleryhip.com/alginate-dressing.html [Accessed 26 November 14].

medihoney_calciumalginate

MEDIHONEY®, (2005), Medihoney Calcium Alginate Dressing [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.directmedicalinc.com/catalog/product/1514/derma-sciences-medihoney-calcium-alginate-dressing-31045/ [Accessed 26 November 14].

How often are they used?

 

Pharmaceutical and medical uses are about 20 percent by value of the market and have stayed buoyant, with 2-4 percent annual growth rates, driven by ongoing developments in controlled release technologies and the use of alginates in wound care applications.

 

 

Bibliography

Books

Muri, J & Brown, P (2005). Biodegradable and sustainable fibres . England: Woodhead Publishing. 104-105.

 

Images

McHugh, (1987), Flow chart for the production of sodium alginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4765e/y4765e08.htm#TopOfPage [Accessed 26 November 14].

Speakman A 1895, The precipitation process of sodium alginate/water solutions. Woodhead Publishing, England.

Kovalenko, (2011), Alginates which help stabilise silicon anodes can be cheaply obtained from seaweed[ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2011/September/08091104.asp[Accessed 26 November 14].

Unknown, (2011), 3M_Tegaderm_GellingAlginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.allegromedical.com/wound-care-c541/tegagen-hg-alginate-dressing-4-x-4-p191032.html[Accessed 26 November 14].

Unknown, (2008), Alginate Dressing -limpeza-do-alginate [ONLINE]. Available at:http://galleryhip.com/alginate-dressing.html [Accessed 26 November 14].

MEDIHONEY®, (2005), Medihoney Calcium Alginate Dressing [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.directmedicalinc.com/catalog/product/1514/derma-sciences-medihoney-calcium-alginate-dressing-31045/ [Accessed 26 November 14].

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What are the Bio-Materials within the Medical Feild?

Bio-Materials are consistently being used within the medical field and researchers are developing these materials further in order to develop there uses within the  body. Bio-materials can be used in a living creatures body, taking in account of there biocompatibility. I am going to write about the different bio-materials which are used in medical industries in conjunction to my second lecture where i was briefly enlightened on some of the materials used.

“Before using biomaterials, it should in mind that, which categories they are belongs and main focuses are on biocompatibility, bioinert, bioactive/surface reactive, biodegradable, sterilizability, adequate mechanical and physical properties, manufacturability, low weight, reasonable cost etc. It is necessary to classify biomaterials for there suitable use in medical industries.” – Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. 2014. Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJAAS/article/view/882/751. [Accessed 16 November 2014].

The performance of bio-materials can work in the body and be classified in many ways. Bio-materials are used to replace a body part/function that is no longer working. This is done in a safe reliable way that is also economic and psychologically acceptable.

Bio-materials has been defined as a synthetic material which has been formally defined by the Clemson University Advisory Board for Biomaterials stating that “a systemically and pharmacologically inert substance designed for implantation within or incorporation with living systems” – Wong Y, J (2013). Biomaterials: Principles and Practices . Florida: CRC Press. 159.


History

‘Bone plates were introduced in the early 1900s to aid  in the fixation of long bone fractures. Many of these early plates broke as a result of unsophisticated mechanical design; they were too thin and had stress concentrating corners. Also, materials such as vanadium steel, which was chosen for its good mechanical properties, corroded rapidly in the body and caused adverse effects on the healing processes. Better designs and materials soon followed. Following the introduction of stainless steels and cobalt chromium alloys in the 1930s, greater success was achieved in fracture fixation, and the first joint replacement surgeries were performed. As for polymers, it was found that warplane pilots inWorld War II who were injured by fragments of plastic (polymethyl methacrylate) aircraft canopy did not suffer adverse chronic reactions from the presence of the fragments in the body. Polymethyl methacrylate became widely used after that time for corneal replacement and for replacements of sections of damaged skull bones. Following further advances in materials and in surgical technique, blood vessel replacements were tried in the 1950s and heart valve replacements and cemented joint replacements in the 1960s. Recent years have seen many further advances’ – Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. 2014. Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJAAS/article/view/882/751. [Accessed 16 November 2014].

Vanadium Steel

i1655w

Kingsley, H, (2001), Image No. 1655 [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.bcmamedicalmuseum.org/object/993.659.1 [Accessed 16 November 14].

Due to failures in bio-compatibility vanadium steel was not suitable for a replacement of bone plates as it eroded within the body and caused further injury and medical problems.

In addition due to advances in bio-medical knowledge stainless steel implants are also rarely used in craniofacial (relating to the cranium and the face eg: craniofacial surgery) indications today.

Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMM)

dental-temporary-dentures-bridge-pmma-nano-compositeUnknown, (2011), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.datron.de/fileadmin/content/pictures/content/dental/indications/temporary-dentures/dental-temporary-dentures-bridge-pmma-nano-composite.jpg [Accessed 16 November 14].

‘Polymethylmethacrylate remains one of the most enduring materials in orthopaedic surgery. It has a central role in the success of total joint replacement and is also used in newer techniques such as percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.’ – The role of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement in modern orthopaedic surgery. J C J, Webb. The Bone and Joint Journal. [Online]. Available at:http://www.bjj.boneandjoint.org.uk/content/89-B/7/851.full. [Accessed 16 Novemember 2014]. 


Metallic Biomaterials

Medical_Alloys__Biometals__Metallic_Biomaterials_2 – Tiger International, (2005), Titanium,Nitinol,Cobalt-Chromium,and Stainless Steel for medical implant applications. [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.bridgat.com/medical_alloys_biometals_metallic_biomaterials-o182318.html [Accessed 16 November 14].

  • Vanadium Steel (as described further above) – used to manufacture bone fracture plates (Sherman plates) and screws.
  • Iron
  • chromium
  • cobalt
  • nickel
  • titanium
  • tantalum
  • niobium
  • molybdenum
  • tungsten

These Metallic Bio-Materials were used to make alloys for manufacturing implants that can only be tolerated by the body in minute amounts. The biocompatibility of the metallic implant is of considerable concern because these implants can corrode. The consequences of corrosion are the disintegration of the implant material, which will weaken the implant, and the harmful effect of corrosion products on the surrounding tissues and organs causing further injury to the body.

Ceramic BioMaterials

Dr Larry Hench was born on 21 November 1938 in Shelby, Ohio and graduated from The Ohio State University in 1961 and 1964 with BS and PhD degrees in Ceramic Engineering. In 1969 Hench discovered BioGlass that bond to living bone.

g – Unknown, (1996), Prof. Larry Hench [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.imperial.ac.uk/publications/reporterarchive/0029/science.htm [Accessed 16 November 14].

In 1969 Hench was seated next to a colonel who had just returned from the Vietnam War. The colonel shared that after an injury the bodies of soldiers would often reject the implant. the Vietnam war in 1969. This intrigued Hench which made him further investigate materials that are biocompatible with the human body. This led to the discovery and invention of Bioglass. This work inspired a new field called bioceramics. 

1280px-Hip_prosthesis – Nogueira, N. (2006), A titanium hip prosthesis, with a ceramic head and polyethylene acetabular cup[ONLINE]. Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hip_prosthesis.jpg [Accessed 16 November 14].

Ceramic Biomaterials Consist of:

  • Oxide ceramics
  • Silica ceramics
  • Carbon fiber
  • Diamond-like carbon
  • tricalcium phosphate
  • Hydroxylapatite
  • Bioglass

Ceramic Biomaterials within the medical field are commonly used for dental and bone implants. Artificial teeth, and bones are also commonly made of ceramic biomaterials. Surgical cermets are used regularly. Joint replacements are commonly coated with ceramic Biomaterials to reduce wear and inflammatory response.

Polymeric Biomaterials

fig3 (1) – Unknown, (2009), unknown [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/0909/pruitt-0909.html [Accessed 16 November 14].

‘Medical polymers are used in a broad range of applications including tissue repair and replacement, drug delivery, and wound healing.1 Polymers are capable of a wide range of structural properties that depend on backbone structure, molecular weight, entanglement density, degree of crystallinity, and degree of crosslinking. In general, polymers exhibit time-dependent mechanical behavior and are known to be viscoelastic. For example, the elastic modulus and yield strength of a polymer generally increases with increasing strain rate while the strain to failure typically decreases with increased loading rates.’ – Polymeric Biomaterials for Load-bearing Medical Devices. 2014. Polymeric Biomaterials for Load-bearing Medical Devices. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/0909/pruitt-0909.html. [Accessed 16 November 2014].

  • Polyvinylchloride – Blood and solution bag, surgical packaging, IV sets, dialysis
    devices,catheter bottles, connectors, and cannulae
  • Polyethylene – Pharmaceutical bottle, nonwoven fabric, catheter, pouch, flexible
    container, and orthopedic implants
  • Polypropylene – Disposable syringes, blood oxygenator membrane, suture,
    nonwoven fabric, and artificial vascular grafts
  • Polymethylmetacrylate – Blood pump and reservoirs, membrane for blood dialyzer,
    implantable ocular lens, and bone cement
  • Polystyrene – Tissue culture flasks, roller bottles, and filterwares
  • Polyethylenterephthalate – Implantable suture, mesh, artificial vascular grafts, and heart valve
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene – Catheter and artificial vascular grafts
  • Polyamide – Packaging film, catheters, sutures, and mold parts

Biodegradable Polymeric Biomaterial 

Why would a medical practitioner want a material to degrade?

  • Can be used as an implant and will not require a second surgical intervention for removal.
  • Using a Stainless Steel has a tendency for refracture upon removal of the implant. Because the stress is borne by the rigid stainless steel, the bone has not been able to carry sufficient load during the healing process.
  • However, an implant prepared from biodegradable polymer can be engineered to degrade at a rate that will slowly transfer load to the healing bone.
  • Can act as a basis for drug delivery into the body, either as a drug delivery system alone or in conjunction to functioning as a medical device. So when it decomposes it slowly or quickly (depending on what type of biodegradable polymer is used) gives off the medical drug into the body.

Types of Polymeric Biomaterial

  • Polylactide
  • Polycaprolactone
  • Polydioxanone
  • Polylactide-co-glycolide

Conclusion

In conclusion I feel that bio-materials are evolutionary to the human form. They are and have the potential to revive, repair and evolve our natural skeletal system and circulatory system. These Biomaterials have the potential to take the human skeletal system to the next level. Evolving our bodies to fulfil different functions that are not (normally) humanly possible as-well as medically repairing injuries to the bodies systems. It seems that the main focuses are on biocompatibility, bioinert, bioactive or surface reactive, biodegradable, sterilizability, adequate mechanical and physical properties, manufacturability, low weight, reasonable costs etc. However Bio-Materials are constantly being developed and the potentials are endless. Medical Bio-materials are already changing peoples lives and improving their standing of living. This is what i want to develop further and look into how bio-materials have changed the standard of peoples lives.

Bibliography 

Websites

Polymeric Biomaterials for Load-bearing Medical Devices. 2014. Polymeric Biomaterials for Load-bearing Medical Devices. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/0909/pruitt-0909.html. [Accessed 16 November 2014].

Online Journals

Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. 2014. Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine | Parida | International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJAAS/article/view/882/751. [Accessed 16 November 2014].

The role of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement in modern orthopaedic surgery. J C J, Webb. The Bone and Joint Journal. [Online]. Available at:http://www.bjj.boneandjoint.org.uk/content/89-B/7/851.full. [Accessed 16 Novemember 2014]. 

Books

Wong Y, J (2013). Biomaterials: Principles and Practices . Florida: CRC Press. 159.

Online Images

Kingsley, H, (2001), Image No. 1655 [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.bcmamedicalmuseum.org/object/993.659.1 [Accessed 16 November 14].

Nogueira, N. (2006), A titanium hip prosthesis, with a ceramic head and polyethylene acetabular cup[ONLINE]. Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hip_prosthesis.jpg [Accessed 16 November 14].

Tiger International, (2005), Titanium,Nitinol,Cobalt-Chromium,and Stainless Steel for medical implant applications. [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.bridgat.com/medical_alloys_biometals_metallic_biomaterials-o182318.html [Accessed 16 November 14].

Unknown, (2011), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.datron.de/fileadmin/content/pictures/content/dental/indications/temporary-dentures/dental-temporary-dentures-bridge-pmma-nano-composite.jpg [Accessed 16 November 14].

Unknown, (1996), Prof. Larry Hench [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.imperial.ac.uk/publications/reporterarchive/0029/science.htm [Accessed 16 November 14].

Unknown, (2009), unknown [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/0909/pruitt-0909.html [Accessed 16 November 14].

Bark Cloth Critical, Analytical and my own Opinions.

I decided to look at bark cloth further because i wanted a flexible wooden textile within my textile degree project. Right now i am laser cutting birch plywood which is opaque and extremely rigid therefore limiting me on the movement of my work.

I decided to research Bark Cloth further to see whether it’d be suitable for my work.

I asked myself some analytical and critical questions to help build my research into bark cloth;

Where does it come from?

Who is it made by?

What fibre type is it?

How is it Manufactured?

What it cant do and why?

What is it properties?

What are its cost implications? What’s more expensive than bark cloth? What is cheaper?

To add onto my powerpoint I think that the production of this fabric is very economical and helps the Baganda people by paying them and therefore helping them develop there community and give them a better quality of life.

From This i found out some very interesting information which also allowed me to research the aesthetics of the work and what i could use it for.

The process of the bark cloth can make it thick or thin depending on what property you would prefer. Opaque- Translucent, Strong or Fragile. Personally i would love to work with bark cloth within my upcoming project as i feel its very diverse and perfect as my chosen material is wood. This fabric is also easy to manipulate by dying and printing and i can also modify the material through laminated binders which will make it waterproof and therefore adding to its properties.

I also think that if i used thin pieces of the bark wood this translucency would add to the positive aesthetics of the material as the light would shine through creating different colours and it would be easier to manipulate into different shapes. I wonder if i could blend it with another material? perhaps metal fibres would make the material form into certain shapes and permanently stay in those forms.

Overall I personally feel that the Bark cloth is an extremely innovative fabric that hasn’t been given the recognition it deserves. Its a non-woven fabric therefore saving time on production and cost as you will not need to weave or knit fibres to create a fabric piece. It also has many great properties that are appealing and beneficial to design work (which i have explained within my presentation below). It is also renewable and environmentally friendly as it decomposes on its own.

 

Bibliography Bark Cloth

Online Images

Kanappe, N, (2014), People in Uganda [ONLINE]. Available at: http://kanappe-go.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/bark-cloth-making.html [Accessed 17 October 14].

Kokolil, L, (2012), Untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.selectforyou.com/2009/03/barkcloth-uganda-germany.html .[Accessed 17 October 14].

Mula, K, (2008), Baganda [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/RL/00082 [Accessed 17 October 14].

Sobich, N, (2008), Barkcloth von Barktex [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.stylepark.com/de/news/forschung-im-gruenen-bereich/285360 [Accessed 17 October 14].

Stephanie Lesser , (2014), Baganda [ONLINE]. Available at: http://stephanielessertravel.com/2014/06/03/the-batwa-experience-near-the-bwindi-impenetrable-forest-uganda/ [Accessed 17 October 14]

Stephanie Lesser , (2014), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://stephanielessertravel.com/2014/06/03/the-batwa-experience-near-the-bwindi-impenetrable-forest-uganda/ [Accessed 17 October 14].

Unknown, (2013), Arc – picture: BARK CLOTH® [ONLINE]. Available at: http://hellomaterialsblog.com/2014/04/02/the-cloth-of-kings-the-most-ancient-textile-in-the-history-of-humanity-wins-launch-systems-challenge-2013/ [Accessed 17 October 14].

Unknown, (2013), WINNER OF LAUNCH: SYSTEMS CHALLENGE 2013 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://hellomaterialsblog.com/2014/04/02/the-cloth-of-kings-the-most-ancient-textile-in-the-history-of-humanity-wins-launch-systems-challenge-2013/ [Accessed 17 October 14].