Functionality in Textiles

Protective Properties

  • UV Protection: Sunburn, SPF factors and ratings can be incorporated into fabric dyes,ceramic fibres have natural protection, fibres and laundry detergent, tighter and heavier construction allows further protection.

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Unknown , (2000), Masood Textile Mills [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.masoodtextile.com/research/special_finishes/special_finishes.php [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Fire and Spark Resistance: Emergency services, carpets and upholstery protected by law, amarmid/ glass/ carbon/ wool fibres have some natural resistance, chemical finishes can be applied, new ‘smart’ responses are heat shielding, metal coatings and shape memory

Scotch_Guard_Flame_Retardant_On_Fabric_Shield

Unknown , (2004), Scotch_Guard_Flame_Retardant_On_Fabric_Shield [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Scotch-Guard-Flame-Retardant-On-Fabric_114863836/showimage.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Protection and Mobility: MIT Researchers using shape memory, second skin for space suits, protects but doesn’t limit movement and remembers shape of wearer

icon_device_textile_jacket_detail

Revzilla, (2008), icon_device_textile_jacket_detail [ONLINE]. Available at:http://blog.revzilla.com/2012/08/icon-device-leather-and-textile-jacket.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Impact resistance: Aramid fibres of Cordura and Kevlar lead the way, ballistic protective body armour is lightweight, breathable and practical, stab-resistance uses aramid and lamination allowing the fabric to ‘heal’.

SpecialtyDowSrange

Textile World, (2009), SpecialtyDowSrange [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.textileworld.com/Issues/2009/July-August/Nonwovens-Technical_Textiles/Observations_Of_Changing_Technology [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Weatherproof: Intelligent solutions and nano-technology, breathable laminates such as Gore-tex, 100% cotton and pure wool can be naturally water resistant depending on fabric construction, biomimetic (lotus leaf). Ventile is 100% cotton from WW2, it cracked with wear, not breathable and heavy. Made from long cotton, tight construction, fabric swelling increasing resistance, no additional treatment.

waterproof-fabric

Ecouterre, (2014), waterproof-fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/is-wearable-technology-hype-or-hope/waterproof-fabric/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Moisture Management: Thermal Regulation, sportswear/ underwear and domestic, quick to dry and breathable, engineered fibres such as Coolmax and layered membrane protection keeps skin dry and comfortable, drawn from interior to exterior.

Masood, (2006), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.masoodtextile.com/research/special_finishes/special_finishes.php [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Temperature: Individually adjusted systems such as AirVantage that builds in air chambers, moist conditions via little blue rings that encourage sweat in certain areas,Omni-freeze ZERO cooler when in hot, Aerogel used by NASA lightest material known to man, medical and emergency possibilities.

brick.on.aerogel

Unknown, (2003), brick.on.aerogel [ONLINE]. Available at: http://lifeboat.com/ex/10.futuristic.materials[Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Buoyancy: Inflatable textiles, protect against sudden impact, air trapping areas into garments, cushioning motorcycle clothing can be automatically activated by sudden movement, temporary installations for housing, exhibitions, architecture and emergency services.

inflatable teahouse

Kengo Kuma, (2002), inflatable teahouse [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/inflatable-tea-house-by-kengo-kuma.html[Accessed 03 December 14].

Kengo Kuma created “The teahouse does not rise up from the ground as a fixed wooden construction, but unfolds as an airborne form. When a ventilation system is activated, the teahouse swells into shape like a white high-tech textile blossom. In its interior, comprising a surface of approximately twenty square metres, are nine tatami mats, an electric stove for the water kettle, a tokonoma niche and a preparation room. Integrated LED technology allows the use of the teahouse at night; the interior can be heated by way of the membrane.” it is made from a double layer of 40% light transmitting SEFAR.

  • Anti-static: Minor discomfort but can cause fires, add metal element to fabric or protective finish like copper and silver, safety issues over potentially harmful emissions from mobile phones, pockets developed to have metal to protect the skin

anti_static_air_filtration_bags

WilkieOffs, (2004), anti_static_air_filtration_bags [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.wilkieoffshore.co.uk/anti_static_air_filters.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

Signalling Textiles

  • Reflective Textiles: Reflecting light for higher visibility at night, embedded glass beads or mini-reflector dishes reflect light to a distance of 200m and even under water, reflective inks/ yarn, Nike’s ‘Reclaim the Night’ collection

thermoreflex1-large

Unknown, (2006), thermoreflex1-large [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.grafityp.co.uk/t-shirt-vinyl-thermoreflex.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

  • Refractive Textiles: Fibre produced that changes according to stretch, in-built colour, multiple layers of cells interfere with light waves, as in soap bubble, sportswear changes with muscle tension. Morpho butterfly wings have natural iridescence, developed by Teijin in Japan, many small synthetic fibres layered in alternating direction.
  • A biometric colour shift originally found in the hogberry plant. It is where multiple layers of cells interfere with light waves producing an effect akin to a soap bubble, a rainbow. Morpho butterfly wings were an inspiration for fabrics that show colour via the use of phototronics as seen in the company Tejin’s ‘Morphotex’ fabrics. There is a potential use of refractive textiles in sportswear, as they could potentially show visually changes in response to muscle tension, pressure or heat.
  • Phosphorescence: Trap and store energy from light to emit a glow, trapped into synthetics, Permalight uses zinc and unsed in printed ink, Rachel Wingfield/ Marmot, electro luminescence that is ‘excited’ by electircal current, Marmot jacket uses EL for display
  • Fibres trap and store light energy and emit it as a glow. ‘Permalight’ uses zinc sulphate to do so and is available as a printing ink.
  • Fibre Optics: Carry pulses of light powered by source, fibre optic camouflage would enable colour, light and pattern, possible applications in medical textiles
  • Chromatic: Able to change their colour in response to external stimuli, thermochromic activated by conductive thread and power source, Maggie Orth, wound heals if it gives off heat, fire fighters uniforms, signal when temperature too high with springs, Squid London
  • Pressure Sensitive Film: ‘Bruise suit’ uses a pressure sensitive film developed by Fuji, signal wearer to impact damage to body, offer graduated insight to how damaging an impact

Well-Being Factors

  • Easy Care: Treatments that assist in keeping a textile clean. Certain nanotechnologies and Teflon treatments impart stain resistant qualities. There is also the use of non-iron easy care in shirting and bed lined textiles which prevents creases to a certain extent.
  • Comfort and Ease: Medical applications include assisting blood flow and reducing burn scarring, mechanical crimped yarns from synthetic provide gentler comfort and stretch, recovery important
  • Aromatic Agents: Scented textiles release aroma when agitated or warmed. Microencapsulation traps the scented particles, aromatherapy elements can also be used, creating multi-sensory textiles and clothing.
  • Anti-Bacterial Protection: Finishes and fibres, found in cosmetics and washing powder, useful for medical/ sports/ footwear, could reduce laundry, naturally derived function found in silver, tea tree and aloe vera as well as crustacean shells
  • Insect Repellence: Fabric treatments can assist in reducing the harmful insects that can live in textiles such as dust mites, particularly in bedding, which can be detrimental to the health of asthma sufferers and those with respiratory problems. This is also important to protect young babies before their immune systems develop as they would very easy pick up allergies and develop childhood asthma.
  • Catalystic Clothing: A relatively new exploration. Can potentially assist in reducing the harmful effects of air pollution, using nanotechnology that can be applied to the fabric through the laundry process. Effectively when the active agent in the fabric is activated by a catalyst (in this case, air pollution) it will get to work to purify the surrounding air.

Health and Cosmetic Benefits: There are coatings that can be applied to fabrics that are called pollen protection as they have a smooth surface which helps them to shed pollen easily, helping to reduce the effects of hay fever. For a standard t-shirt weighing 200mgs a vitamin C content can be imparted that equals the equivalent of 2 lemons. There are treatments applied to textiles to assist in moisturising skin and delivering active health benefits by trapping moisturising capsules within the fibres. Claims have been made by the likes of Victoria’s Secret and Miss Sixty that wearing their moisture enriched underwear can actively reduce the look and feel of cellulite. How much truth lies in these claims I don’t know.

Interactive Textiles

Conductivity: This is an essential element in interactive textiles. Conductivity can be imparted by the use of metal fibres/content, or with special coatings and printing ink, depending on the product’s use and desired functionality. In conductive gloves fine copper thread in used to complete the electric circuit between skin and screen. Conductive power sources are lightweight and flexible and it is also essential for them to be washable, however solar power elements can be woven into the garment as a back-up power source. Gorix is a branded, carbonised fibre with electrical conductive properties used for heated car sets, motorbike clothing and heated diving suits.

19069cc4cd6f0990c8f18f4ebbe82591
Dominique Lafond, (2009), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.pinterest.com/pin/570760952749272432/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

Soft Interfaces: using textiles as a carrier, the development of ‘ambient technology’ plans to create products for the home that are soft and tactile. Furniture that can ‘memorise’ personal preferences and then adapt accordingly.

Power Sources: Lightweight textile-compatible/ flexible/ reliable/ washable power sources are essential, solar power elements can be woven into garment or added to surface but can be unreliable and used better in backpack, CG chem/ Scott Erest, heat and kinetic energy created by wearer, ‘string’ battery to be used as a piping trim on a product of garment. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Fudan University

Monitoring and Health: The Lifeshirt can record the wearer’s vital signs and record it as data via sensors within the garment. This same technology can be used to also monitor emergency workers. it is also used in sport to monitor training, it allows realtime interaction during activity and also provides direct feedback. Can also be used as personal protection via GPS and garments that can shock an attacker. The GPS technology could also track the location of those with health issues in case they come into danger.

Communication and Interaction: Textile keyboards and touch pads, those with disabilities, personal protection via GPS, active camouflage using fibre optics, invisibility clothing and optical camouflage. Metamaterials, electromagnetic composites, allow waves to move around the edge, TUFTS University

Optical camouflage: is also under development, to create camouflage that has an instinctive chameleon effect. Intelligent camouflage built using nanotechnology have the possible ability to divert light wavelengths, to change light from positive to negative refraction, rendering the object invisible.

Fashion:  Wearable electronic developments, real integration builds interactivity invisibly into garments, accessories or jewellery. Phillips Bubelle dress, two layers: inner contains biometric sensors, responds to emotions and projects to outer layer as colours.

Bibliography

Dominique Lafond, (2009), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.pinterest.com/pin/570760952749272432/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

Ecouterre, (2014), waterproof-fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/is-wearable-technology-hype-or-hope/waterproof-fabric/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

Kengo Kuma, (2002), inflatable teahouse [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/inflatable-tea-house-by-kengo-kuma.html[Accessed 03 December 14].

Masood, (2006), Unknown [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.masoodtextile.com/research/special_finishes/special_finishes.php [Accessed 03 December 14].

Revzilla, (2008), icon_device_textile_jacket_detail [ONLINE]. Available at:http://blog.revzilla.com/2012/08/icon-device-leather-and-textile-jacket.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

Textile World, (2009), SpecialtyDowSrange [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.textileworld.com/Issues/2009/July-August/Nonwovens-Technical_Textiles/Observations_Of_Changing_Technology [Accessed 03 December 14].

Unknown , (2000), Masood Textile Mills [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.masoodtextile.com/research/special_finishes/special_finishes.php [Accessed 03 December 14].

Unknown , (2004), Scotch_Guard_Flame_Retardant_On_Fabric_Shield [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Scotch-Guard-Flame-Retardant-On-Fabric_114863836/showimage.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

Unknown, (2003), brick.on.aerogel [ONLINE]. Available at: http://lifeboat.com/ex/10.futuristic.materials[Accessed 03 December 14].

Unknown, (2006), thermoreflex1-large [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.grafityp.co.uk/t-shirt-vinyl-thermoreflex.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

WilkieOffs, (2004), anti_static_air_filtration_bags [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.wilkieoffshore.co.uk/anti_static_air_filters.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

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Sustainability in Textiles

“Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs “ – United Nations 1987

The problem with waste and using non-renewable resources is increasing. To be a sustainable textile designer can be costly and therefore harder to make changes and be environmentally aware.  Some examples of the changes designers could make are listed below:

  • Using certain fabrics such as cotton is better than polyester, because polyester is made from harsh oil and chemicals bad for the environment 
  • Transportation of materials which increase carbon footprint
  • Factories using energy and utilities is bad since this would affect the environment
  • Dyes which can get into water and streams are not sustainable whilst natural food dyes are because they are not harmful.

Not only is it costly for designers to be sustainable but retailers are increasingly putting pressure on manufacturers and suppliers to be sustainable and to still come out with high quality and fashion forward designs. Within this lecture we looked at new textile innovations for the sustainability of textiles that designers, campaign groups and companies are using to make effective use of materials.

“For the fashion industry to be sustainable economically, it must be sustainable socially and environmentally too. These provocative scenarios challenge all of us to look beyond the short term and use our collective power to work to create the kind of positive world we’d like to see in 2025.” – John Anderson, President and CEO of Levi Strauss & Co.

  • WTO situation has changed, seeing a shift in trade patterns
  •  Sustainable environment performance and CSR
  • Product styles are becoming increasing obsolete.
  • Profit margins reduces harder to find budget

Processing:

Energy and Effluent: water used extensively throughout textiles’ life cycle, untreated water effluent contaminates and releases toxic pollution, water-less treatments such as digital printing are more efficient.

– If untreated it contaminates further

– Can be prevented more by minimising water

-It creates high energy and causes further pollution

pink-sewage-300_tcm18-156872

Jucheng Hu, (2008), Pink Sewage [ONLINE]. Available at:http://oecotextiles.wordpress.com/2009/09/01/dyes-synthetic-and-natural/ [Accessed 03 December 14]

Ethical Production

  • Fair trade programmes, to work against the child labour work in factory
  • Production to pay fair wages and to promote skills within less fortunate countries

A project named “The FELLOWSHIP 500″ was launched by the company “Ethical Fashion Forum” in 2011 with the aim of taking the fashion industry to tipping point- the point at which sustainable practices by fashion businesses become the rule rather than the exception to it- from field to final product.

The Fellowship will do this through:

  • Uniting 500 innovators and leaders in the fashion sector every year
  • Supporting and facilitating collaboration between these leaders towards common sustainability goals
  • Inspiring innovative thinking, enabling positive change and creating an enlightened space to tackle the challenges of the fashion industry
  • Putting the spotlight on the industries leaders, globally, through the Fellowship scheme
  • Encouraging more fashion sector professionals and businesses to engage with sustainability and to become leaders in their fields, in every part of the world

Who are the fellowship 500?

The Fellowship 500 brings together pioneering designers, businesses, entrepreneurs, academics, professionals, and experts , from all over the world and every part of the supply chain.

One of the companys that is part of fellowship 500 is:

Animaná is an Andean garment manufacturer who works with local communities and use natural fibres and dyes. The company aims to facilitate links between suppliers and buyers to help keep ancient skills and craftsmanship alive in Patagonia and the Andes. Their most recent collection by Dominique Peclers is designed to give an alternative to the cosmopolitan consumer, uniting slow fashion and Pantagonian pure fibres.

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Animana, (2014), ELLE & LUI [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.animanapatagonia.com/eng/productos-lineas-03-cloth.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

Pioneering in: Reviving and supporting ancient artisanal skills. Expanding the ethical fashion movement in South America.

Fellowship sector: Supply sector – fair trade / cooperative.

New Raw Materials:

Ingeo is a sustainable and natural based polymer. This revolutionary bioplastic is made up of long molecular chains of the polymer polylactide. It is derived from naturally-occurring plant sugar.

  • It has excellent Uv Protection
  • High tenacity
  • Great Elastic Recovery

Cereplast is a bioplastic company that creates a wide range of biobased, compostable and sustainable bioplastic resins from corn, potatoes and algae – to meet surging consumer and industrial demand for alternatives to traditional plastics.

Radici uses beans of the caster oil plant to manufacture an alternative raw material for Nylo.

Bio-processing:

“The BioLace project is designed to probe the potential of a biological manufacturing future by exploring the cellular programming of morphogenesis in plant systems. For this, Design Researcher Carole Collet imagines the creation reprogrammed plants such as a hybrid strawberry plant which would produce at the same time both strawberry fruits and lace samples from its roots. The future biological control of genetic morphogenesis implies that we could design plants to perform specific functions for us.” – Unknown . (2014). Biolace. Available: http://www.carolecollet.com/dodesign/biolace/. Last accessed 3rd Dec 2014.

carolecollet-biolace-straberrynoir3

Unknown , (2000), Strawberry Noir (Fragaria Fusca Tenebris) [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.carolecollet.com/dodesign/biolace/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

 

Colour/ Dyeing:

  • Undyed fibre: Fox fibre cotton, different wool fleece colours and golden silk, doesn’t answer to seasonal colour flexibility or price
  • In-built colour: Negating the need to dye, colour feedstock into mulberry powder used to feed silkworms, cocoons produce inherent colour that can be used as a luminescent, similar work with cotton plants, suitable for large scale manufacturing of basic stock colours.

Waste Reproduction

Direct Panel Loom (DPL): Weaves made to fit garment sections, saves yarn, dyes, and chemicals, reduced time and processes by 50%

zerowastedesembed

loomstate, (2011), zerowastedesembed [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.refinery29.com/loomstate-parsons-zero-waste-anorak [Accessed 03 December 14].

 

 

“The winning design, by Crescioni was inspired from a zero waste fashion course at the school and guidance from Timo Rissanen, Parsons Assistant Professor of Fashion Design and Sustainability and an expert in zero waste fashion.”

– Amy DuFault. (2015). LUSTABLES: LOOMSTATE & PARSON’S ZERO WASTE ANORAK. Available: http://ecosalon.com/lustables-loomstate-parsons-zero-waste-anorak-390/. Last accessed 3rd Dec 2014.

“Zero waste fashion is an innovative design process that produces no fabric waste. In effect, patternmaking becomes an integral part of the process, creating a richer, more sustainable design practice,” says Simon Collins, dean of the School of Fashion at Parsons. “Through this collaboration, we have proven that zero waste can be a viable manufacturing process for designers.” –  

Amy DuFault. (2015). LUSTABLES: LOOMSTATE & PARSON’S ZERO WASTE ANORAK. Available: http://ecosalon.com/lustables-loomstate-parsons-zero-waste-anorak-390/. Last accessed 3rd Dec 2014.

 

Reuse/Recycle/Repurpose:

  • Centriforce Products: Fishing nets reused into reusable polymers
  • Up cycling and down cycling fabrics either for insulation or new clothing, Trash to Trend database, Reet Aus and Beximoo use post-production scraps on a large scale to make a repeatable line of clothing styles
  • Freitag repurpose haulage tarpaulins from trucks into bags, Hosewear use upcycled fire hoses and tyres, Green Furnitures T-shirt chair is a steel frame and consumer can ‘upholster’ with personal clothes or fabric
  • Refinity’s Fioen van Balgooi: Removable prints, textile inks that can be stripped from a garment before it’s sent for reprinting, doesn’t contain any harmful substances.

Cradle to Cradle

  • Creating closed loops or cycles for both natural and synthetic materials, technical nutrients are non-harmful synthetic substances, biological nutrients can be decomposed
  • Desso: Carpet manufacturer who take back used carpets from consumers and seperate yarn from backing, producing two material streams, yarn returned to yarn manufacturer to be reused.

 

Bibliography

Amy DuFault. (2015). LUSTABLES: LOOMSTATE & PARSON’S ZERO WASTE ANORAK. Available: http://ecosalon.com/lustables-loomstate-parsons-zero-waste-anorak-390/. Last accessed 3rd Dec 2014.

Animana, (2014), ELLE & LUI [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.animanapatagonia.com/eng/productos-lineas-03-cloth.html [Accessed 03 December 14].

Jucheng Hu, (2008), Pink Sewage [ONLINE]. Available at:http://oecotextiles.wordpress.com/2009/09/01/dyes-synthetic-and-natural/ [Accessed 03 December 14]

Loomstate, (2011), zerowastedesembed [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.refinery29.com/loomstate-parsons-zero-waste-anorak [Accessed 03 December 14].

Unknown . (2014). Biolace. Available: http://www.carolecollet.com/dodesign/biolace/. Last accessed 3rd Dec 2014.

Unknown , (2000), Strawberry Noir (Fragaria Fusca Tenebris) [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.carolecollet.com/dodesign/biolace/ [Accessed 03 December 14].

Textile Body Suits – My beginning Thoughts, Questions and Aims.

Whilst researching medical textiles, seeing how they have evolved throughout history and how they are applied to the human body i began to think how these textiles almost evolve the human system. Tricking it and reacting with it to heal and making it able to do actions and function different to what normally wouldn’t be possible.

I began to think outside of medical textiles and began to look at textiles that change the functions, change the human form and almost evolve the human body, allowing us as a race to take the next step and enhance our bodies to allow actions that are humanly impossible or hard to do. This is when i came to the conclusion that i would begin to look into textile body suits.

What has been developed?

What is out there right now?

How do they work?

How does it evolve the human form?

Perhaps the human form is used to create a different function? Perhaps this form can help do other function that help the other forms around them e.g.: heat rooms, play music, record memories, help with global warming, clean atmospheres?

What textiles are used?

How will this evolve the human form/race?

The possiblilties are endless. I will begin to look whats out there now looking into different designers, textiles and scientific discoveries and developments to support my research. I will also look further into some of the techniques used and experiment with some of them myself to see first hand how some of them work. I will also collect some of the textiles used to see first hand they’re functions and they’re advantages and disadvantages.

 

Sonja Baumel

Sonja Baumel has created  textiles that instead of evolving the human form Baumel changes its form and uses the human form to evolve her own textile. Therefore showing a different interpretation of the other designers/textile suits i have researched of which evolve the human body and its functions. Her project to I explore human skin and its potential. She has also created parts and has the potential to create a human body suit from this. The project is called In)visible membrane: life on the human body and its design applications, within this project she has a series of experiments called: –

Crocheted membrane

Oversized petri dish

Bacteria texture

Visible membrane I

Bacteria textile

crotcheted membrane– Crocheted Membrane

Baumel, S, (2009), Crocheted Membrane [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

oversized petridish– Oversized petridish

Baumel, S, (2009), Oversized Petridish [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

bacteria texture– Bacteria Texture

Baumel, S, (2009), Bacteria Texture [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].visible membrane 1– Visible Membrane 1

Baumel, S, (2009), Visible Membrane 1 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

bacteria textile– Bacteria Textile

Baumel, S, (2009), Bacteria Textile [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works [Accessed 01 January 15].

“What fascinates me is the human skin, the layer between the inside and the outside. a second skin can be found on our skin. It is a layer full of life, which serves as a membrane for exchange. This body membrane is made from the same substance as the world. The human body does not end with its skin, but it is invisibly expanding into space. The hidden membrane is something between our body and our environment. We enter this invisible micro level with a microscope and then enlarge it with design.”

Bäumel, S. 2009. visible membrane. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/work/bacteria/visible-membrane-i. [Accessed 14 January 15].

“a second skin” – Perhaps a layer of textile that is naturally produced and will decompose naturally over time making it a non-polluted resource that is safe for the environment and perhaps can be given some function/ some purpose and use within the medical field.

Bäumel, S. 2009. visible membrane. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/work/bacteria/visible-membrane-i. [Accessed 14 January 15].

“What happens if we make the micro world of the human body perceivable? I want to confront people with the fact that our body is a large host of bacteria and that a balanced perception of the body is closely linked with a balanced perception of the self.”

Bäumel, S. 2009. visible membrane. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/work/bacteria/visible-membrane-i. [Accessed 14 January 15].

This made me think that in connection to my previous medical textiles research that perhaps the human bodies bacteria that Sonja Baumel has trapped within textiles (and made visible to the human eye) could be developed into medicines.

Can the bacteria being collected within the textile be developed to make medicine?

Can human bacteria on the body be used as medicine?

To carry on this idea perhaps i can experiment myself with growing human bacteria. Then growing this bacteria onto textiles so that it can be easily transferred (if needed) and can be seen easily. The idea of growing human bacteria onto textiles (which have been worn so the bacteria can grow) and the question of could it be possible to turn this bacteria into medicine to help others.

I looked into this further-

“But this new study reveals a surprising alternative scenario: bacteria in and on our bodies are already busy creating tiny factories that make antibiotics just as powerful and capable of targeting specific pathogens as the ones made by pharmaceutical companies.”

Paddock, C PHD. 2014. Antibiotics found in human body bacteria. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/282636.php. [Accessed 14 January 15].

I feel that this is is what i want to research further. I want to research this further, analyse and self evaluate in relation to what i have learnt within my lectures.

Relating it back and questioning the :-

What are the functions?

What are its properties?

What is it’s fibre type?

Perhaps it can only grow on certain fibres?

How is it made?

What it can and cant do as a (human bacteria) textile

What could be the possible cost implications and does it have time restrictions?

I will need to show and create my own experiments to answer some of these questions myself.

Bibliography

Baumel, S, (2009), Crocheted Membrane [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

Baumel, S, (2009), Oversized Petridish [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

Baumel, S, (2009), Bacteria Texture [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

Bäumel, S. 2009. visible membrane. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/work/bacteria/visible-membrane-i. [Accessed 14 January 15].Bäumel, S. 2009. visible membrane. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/work/bacteria/visible-membrane-i. [Accessed 14 January 15].

Baumel, S, (2009), Visible Membrane 1 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works[Accessed 01 January 15].

Baumel, S, (2009), Bacteria Textile [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.sonjabaeumel.at/works [Accessed 01 January 15].

Paddock, C PHD. 2014. Antibiotics found in human body bacteria. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/282636.php. [Accessed 14 January 15].