Weaving with Cotton and Wool

 

Here I experimented with weaving within my first year of textile design. I used a mixture of cotton and wool within my weave that had been dyed after they had been made into the warp. I used Direct dyes onto the cotton and wool warps as they are both cellulose (natural) fibres. Cotton coming from Seeds of cotton plants. Wool fibres typically come from the animals coat eg: sheep therefore being a natural fibre but not a plant based fibre i used an acid dye.

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I found the weaving process fun even though the wool that i used was a little fragile therefore needed extra care and some more time carefully pulling it when setting up the loom. Overall I was pleased with the outcome of my weave and found that the techniques that i used contrasted and harmonized the colours well to show a aesthetically pleasing textile design piece.

 

 

 

 

 

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Printing onto Synthetic Materials. My own Textile Design

portfolio-edit

 

Here i have dyed onto polyester. Polyester is a synthetic material that is a man-made fibre therefore you cannot use natural dyes like cellulose dyes, procion and some acid dyes as it doesn’t work as-well and the dye doesn’t cling onto the fibre as well as a synthetic dye like some acid dyes and disperse dyes.

When i printed these polyester pieces i used Disperse dyes to print. I used stencils to create the shapes onto the textile fibre.

I feel that this went very well considering these examples i am showing are my very first attempt at printing during my 1st year in my degree.

Thoughts from the Lecture. What Interested Me? What can I Research Further?

I began to write down what interested me in the lecture. This then developed into different thought processes and allowed me to see what thoughts I could research further.

 

I found this lecture very interesting showing me an overview of the main natural fibres. It’s amazing how textiles are so innovative creating materials that are used in hospitals because of their hygienic properties.

I am interested in looking into this further and see

What other materials are used within the hospital and medical practice?

How are alginate and other synthetic materials used?

How do the other material work and what are they used for?

What fibre types are they?

Who makes it?

Where does all the materials come from?

What are the cost implications?

This makes me wonder about the other innovative textiles that are out there and how they are being used to help people and develop/evolve us further as a race. Perhaps I could look into astronaut suits and special body suits that can change/transform the properties of our natural bodies. Body suits that evolve us to fit into different environments.

 

How do these suits work?

What suits can I find that can transform the properties of our natural bodies and that can allow us to fit and be able to “live” in an environment that would normally damage our bodies?

What materials do these suits use?

What is the fibre type?

Who makes them?

Where do all the materials come from?

What are the cost implications?

 

The suits I can think of now;

– Astronaut suit – Beekeeping suit -Diving suit – NBC Suit – Fire Proximity Suit

However before I look further into this I would like to look into Bark cloth further. This is because I am using wood right now within my textile project. I was looking for a wooden material that would be flexible enough to create certain aesthetics within my work.

Textile Innovation. Lecture One.

This lecture I began to learn innovative fibres from natural sources. Traditionally we use natural fibres to woven garments as clothing to later use textile specialisms to make them usable in our households or to sell for extra income.  But nowadays natural fibres are being used in various industries, for example in the clothing industry natural fibres such as cotton, linen, silk, and even banana fibre are used because of their lightweight and wear comfort. They are widely popular especially among foreigners.

Bast Fibres

Nettle fibres Ramie and Himalayan nettle

Several species of the nettle family (Urticaceae) produce bast fibres similar to flax

Derived from the inner Fibrous Stem. Incidentally there is no sting left in the extracted fibre.

  • The process of creating nettle textile when collecting the crop helps with environmental and social benefits for local native farmers and should be encouraged.
  • Health giving herbs like luobuima from china helps produce textile fibres plus it gives health benefits through remedies and medicines.
  • The common stinging nettle Urtica dioica, is a widely distributed plant that grows very easily on a damp disturbed ground. It has been used as fodder for livestock and to make tea, beer, rennet and plant dye.
  • Nettle fibres are white, silky and produced a thinner and silkier fabric than flax, so that it is possible that fine linens for the wealthy may have been woven from the nettle rather than flax.

640px-Urtica_dioica_1

Franz Xaver, (2009), A stinging nettle growing in a field [ONLINE]. Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urtica_dioica#mediaviewer/File:Urtica_dioica_1.jpg [Accessed 07 November 14].

Hemp Fibres

  • Hemp is the common name for plants of the genus cannabis, but it is usually used to refer to cannabis strains cultivated for hemp fibre and for other non-drug use.
  • Hemp is versatile and every part is used
  • Natural strength, UV resistance, thermal properties and durability
  • Naturally renewable resource requires little agricultural assistance
  • Hemp is now being used in some denims and casual sports wear, interior and domestic textiles. In non-woven forms it is used for insulation in cars.

640px-La_Roche_Jagu_chanvre_1

Barbetorte, (2007), La Roche Jagu chanvre 1 [ONLINE]. Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp#mediaviewer/File:La_Roche_Jagu_chanvre_1.JPG [Accessed 07 November 14].

Lotus Fibres

  • Creating the lotus fabric itself takes time and thoughtfulness as it takes approximately 32,000 lotus stems to make just 1.09 yards of fabric.
  • Stems are bunched sliced and snapped apart to expose its plant white fibres which are then left out to dry.
  • It has a sentimental value for all Buddhists.
  • When blended with cotton fibres they give a fabric of unique properties different from fabrics that can be used for garments or developed as various home utensils.
  • The surface is uneven with white lumps.
  • The fabric can be used for garments or developed as various home utensils.

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Samatoa, (2013), The Process [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.facebook.com/Lotus.Farm.By.Samatoa/photos/87?type=3&theater. [Accessed 07 November 14].

Leaf Fibres

  • Comes from different plants such as agave, pineapple and banana.
  • From natural renewable resources
  • Naturally strong fibre
  • Very hard to process and weave.

AN00306590_001_m

Charles. F. Wood , (2001), Loin-cloth [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.britishmuseum.org/join_in/using_digital_images/using_digital_images.aspx?asset_id=306590&objectId=510965&partId=1 [Accessed 07 November 14].Bark Fibres

  • Bark Cloth wide range of textile. Manufactured with low energy and water consumption therefore barely any carbon footprint.
  • Once bark is stripped from the tree you then have to wait until next season to strip the tree again to create fabric.
  • The bark is beaten to help create its fabric aesthetics and properties.
  • Fragile textile due to being highly flammable non water-retardant and marks easily.

Seed and Hair Fibres

 

Cotton Fibres

  • A commercial seed hair fibre. The fibre is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile.
  • The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals, such as herbicides, fertilisers and insecticides, although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production, and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations.
  • All natural cotton products are known to be both sustainable and hypoallergenic.

crailar-organic-fibers

Abigail Doan , (2010), Crailar Organic Fibers [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/crailar-organic-fibers-a-new-eco-friendly-spin-on-cotton/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Kapok Fibres

  • Kapok also called Java cotton, ceiba, or Java kapok,  seed-hair fibre obtained from the fruit of the kapok tree or the kapok tree
  • Kapoks do not bloom every year, and some may go 5–10 years without flowering.
  • Kapok is also used as stuffing for pillows, mattresses, and upholstery, as insulation material, and as a substitute for absorbent cotton in surgery.
  • This fibre is obtained from husks of the fruit of the coconut palm. It’s mainly produced in india and sri Lanka. The fruits are broken by hand or machine.
  • The fibres are used in upholstery, cordage, fabrics, mats and brushes.

Kapok Fiber blob-

July emery, (2001), Kapok blob [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.timortreasures.com/product_info.php?products_id=2197 [Accessed 07 November 14].

Paper Fibres

  • Paper is a fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops or waste paper.
  • Using wood to make paper is a fairly recent innovation. Paper making using cotton and linen fibres spread to Europe in the 13th century.

19160-large

Elizabeth-Anne Haldane , (1995), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/journals/conservation-journal/issue-32/so-thats-why-textile-conservation-has-such-a-big-studio!-tapesty-washing-at-the-v-and-a/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Peat Fibres

  • Thermal properties, UV Resistant, Antiseptic with natural antiseptic properties.
  • Renewable
  • Biodegradable
  • Peat fibres are made from the leaves and stems of cotton grass. The white seed heads of the cotton grass plant have been used to stuff pillows and cushions but it is unsuitable for spinning.
  • The production of peat fibre is complex and an expensive process but the shortage of the other materials during world war one resulted in it being used to make uniforms and bandages in Germany.

peat413

Unknown, (2013), Pleat Fabrics [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.allfiberarts.com/library/graphics/mushroom/peat414.jpg. [Accessed 07 November 14].

Horse Hair Textiles

 

  • Textile artist Marianne Kemp specialises in weaving horse hair. Each piece has a unique character from her unconventional weaving techniques and combination of the texture colour and movement.
  • Horsehair fabrics are woven with wefts of tail hair from live horses and cotton or silk warps. Horsehair fabrics are sought for their lustre, durability and care properties and mainly used for upholstery and interiors.
  • Horsehair is a protein fibre that absorbs water slowly, but can be dyed or coloured effectively using traditional dyes suitable for protein fibres. It can be felted, but not easily.

history-natural-white-horsehair-hackle

Jim Sauchyn, (1998), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.johnboydtextiles.co.uk/history.ph. [Accessed 07 November 14].

Metal Fibres

  • Aluminum, copper and steel.
  • Functional aesthetic as it memorizes predetermined shape and reacts to heat.
  • They are conductive, can assist in protecting against electromagnetic radiation, and are detectable by radar and heat seeking devices.
  • Silver is naturally antibacterial.

615x200-ds-photo-getty-article-56-58-92839120_XS

Teressa Rose Ezell, (2007), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.ehow.com/info_8630277_terracotta-sculpture-techniques.html [Accessed 07 November 14].

Bio Fibres

Biotechnology- application of living organisms and their components to industrial products and processes is not an industry in itself, but an important technology that will have a large impact on many different industrial sectors in the future.

Stretch Fibres

  • In high performance sportswear, stretch garments ply an important part in improving several aspects of an athlete’s performance including speed, stamina and strength.
  • Elastine (spandex), lycra and latex are all important stretch fibres.
  • They have great comfort and fit, and fewer wrinkles or bagging than their stretch-less counterparts.

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Mark Pain , (2014), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://markpain.com/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Latex Fibres

  • Milky white latex fluid collected from Pará rubber tree (Heveabrasiliensis),
  • The latex is a sticky, milky colour made by by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called “tapping”. The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing.
  • Latex rubber as a clothing material is common in fetish fashion and among BDSM practitioners, and is often seen worn at fetish clubs. Latex is sometimes also used by couturiers for its dramatic appearance.

latexcollection-640x360

Kirn, P (2012), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2012/10/electronic-body-music-organ-alpha-a-sonic-installation-that-makes-you-into-sound/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Plant Based Rubber

  • A plant based replacement to oil derived synthetic neoprene
  • Uses guayule plant- latex can be extracted and turned into rubber
  • Guayule: flowering desert shrub in the aster family, native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico
  • Most rubber in man-made now, but researchers working to bring back eco-friendly processes
  • Potential alternative to petroleum-based synthetics that are now the predominant form of rubber in tyres and many other rubber products

Major Cellulose Fibres

Cellulose is a chemical substance that makes up around half of all solid material in the plant world. It is abundant and renewable, and is therefore an almost inexhaustible raw material resource.

  • Wool, Silk, Cotton, Bamboo, Wood are all examples of cellulose fibres.
  • Alginate- Seaweed healing properties from iodine content.
  • UV resistant
  • Has some absorbency and moisture management

Alginate

  • Produced from brown seaweed. It also has healing properties from the iodine content.
  • Blended with cellulose fibres, fabrics are used in underwear that imparts anti-inflammatory and antiseptic benefits to the skin
  • In medical applications, non-woven alginate fibres hasten blood clotting and encourage healing on damaged skin.
  • They are used as non-woven burn and skin dresses.

Tallis 2

Greg Aronowitz, (2014), Tallis 2 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://barnyardfx.blogspot.co.uk/2011/09/felicia-days-tallis-costume.html [Accessed 07 November 14].

Man Made Synthetics

  • Polyethylene, PVC, Polypropylene and polyurethane are all forms of synthetics from non renewable oil-based resources.
  • All have a high strength, can be heat set and provide a wide variety of different products for industrial, medical, sports textiles.
  • Fibres and products can be recyclable.

fabrics

Sarah Gores, (2014), Fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.thebudgetbabe.com/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Bibliography

Abigail Doan , (2010), Crailar Organic Fibers [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/crailar-organic-fibers-a-new-eco-friendly-spin-on-cotton/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Barbetorte, (2007), La Roche Jagu chanvre 1 [ONLINE]. Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp#mediaviewer/File:La_Roche_Jagu_chanvre_1.JPG [Accessed 07 November 14].

Charles. F. Wood , (2001), Loin-cloth [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.britishmuseum.org/join_in/using_digital_images/using_digital_images.aspx?asset_id=306590&objectId=510965&partId=1 [Accessed 07 November 14].Bark Fibres

Elizabeth-Anne Haldane , (1995), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/journals/conservation-journal/issue-32/so-thats-why-textile-conservation-has-such-a-big-studio!-tapesty-washing-at-the-v-and-a/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Franz Xaver, (2009), A stinging nettle growing in a field [ONLINE]. Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urtica_dioica#mediaviewer/File:Urtica_dioica_1.jpg [Accessed 07 November 14].

Greg Aronowitz, (2014), Tallis 2 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://barnyardfx.blogspot.co.uk/2011/09/felicia-days-tallis-costume.html [Accessed 07 November 14].

Jim Sauchyn, (1998), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.johnboydtextiles.co.uk/history.ph. [Accessed 07 November 14].

Kirn, P (2012), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2012/10/electronic-body-music-organ-alpha-a-sonic-installation-that-makes-you-into-sound/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Mark Pain , (2014), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at: http://markpain.com/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Samatoa, (2013), The Process [ONLINE]. Available at:https://www.facebook.com/Lotus.Farm.By.Samatoa/photos/87?type=3&theater. [Accessed 07 November 14].

Sarah Gores, (2014), Fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.thebudgetbabe.com/ [Accessed 07 November 14].

Teressa Rose Ezell, (2007), untitled [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.ehow.com/info_8630277_terracotta-sculpture-techniques.html [Accessed 07 November 14].

Unknown, (2013), Pleat Fabrics [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.allfiberarts.com/library/graphics/mushroom/peat414.jpg. [Accessed 07 November 14].