Modern Construction of Textiles. Lecture Three Notes.

Within this Lecture I learnt the innovative processes/textiles in this modern day. When you compare them to the tradition construction of textile

  • Weaving
  • Knitting
  • Non-woven

It is truly amazing to see how far textiles has evolved and what constructions and innovative textile there are now.

3D Spacer Fabrics


















unknown, (2011), 3D mesh fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].

  • Warp Knitted or Woven
  • The central layer consists of countless threads which contribute to elasticity and flexibility of the spacer fabric besides the distance held between the covering layers.
  • Uses Synthetic Fibres such as Polyester. This can differ on each face and the filling depending on required function and end use.
  • Water resistant, antibacterial treatments and fire-retardant properties can be added.
  • Used in shoes, sports bags, cushioning clothing, seating, baby bedding and other medical and protective product.
  • Good durability so can be used outside.

Personally i think this would be great for hospital chairs and bedding due to its anti-bacterial qualities and its comfort. 

  • The skeleton of the Venus Flower Basket sponge provided inspiration for the 3D textile construction.
  • The aim was To replace foam filling layers.
  • It combines multi-dimensional stability and flexibility with lightness of weight.

3D Spacer Knit Fabrics

  • Adidas was the first company to create a football boot with an upper layer knit. From Heel to toe with one single thread. Additional coatings add waterproofing cutting waste is eliminated and sewing time reduced.
  • 3D Spacer Knit Fabrics have lightweight and breathable pressure relieving cushions.
  • The cushions are said to distribute the weight and allow maximum airflow. Which provides benefits to the skin and retains a healthy skin tone. Helping blood flow for people sitting in one position fir too long periods of time.
  • These cushions specially benefit wheelchair users, people in office jobs and taxi divers.
  • Designed with the focus on health and comfort, the range is said to be non-allergenic and provide contamination resistance and odour.


3D Spacer Woven Fabrics

  • Used in Automobile industries. Produced using Glass fibres or robust synthetics such as kevlar.
  • The central part of the material can be used to carry other substances or materials such as wiring or conduits.



Body Scanning

  • An Automatic measuring system that measures the body and creates designs for mass-market products to the customers needs (trousers and tops ect). These designs are then created for the costumer later on.Allowing the products to fit the customer perfectly as its designed for them.
  • It is an effective competing strategy for maximising customer satisfaction. It also minimises inventory costs.



Polvinen, E, (2012), Virtual Fashion Technology [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].


Sprayed Fabrics

  • This involves the creation of a liquid suspension sprayed by either a spray gun aerosol can.
  • Properties can be taken to meet the needs of the consumer. intricate patterns can be creating a number of colours.leading to an aesthetically pleasing fabric.
  • different fibres can be used from natural to synthetic. Incorporating colours from primary to fluorescent. These different fibres can create great flexibility for modern consumers and industrial needs.


Thompson, L, (2010), Fabrican [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].

Moulded Fabrics

  • It is possible to mould synthetic yarn around a form to create the desired silhouette- no cutting or sewing required.
  • By applying heat the tangled non-woven fibres fuse into three-dimensional wearable sculptures with clean lines, descisive shapes and unexpected contours.
  • Petroleum based fibres are used however they are designing in free form rather than through conventional methods. The fibres themselves transform from 2D to 3D without the amounts of waste that traditional construction methods involve.
  • Could also be used for product design as well as fashion and clothing.

Growing Fabrics

  • An Alternative to exploiting petro-chemicals or plants as a raw material for textile products.
  • Biocouture work investigates the use of microbes to grow a textile/leather type bio material
  • Fermenting bacteria form a dense layer, a flexible cellulose mat that can then be harvested.
  • The aim is to produce an entire piece to fit a personalised form.
  • Takes dye easily and can be printed
  • Safe to compost- feels like a vegetable leather

Rapid Prototyping/3D Print

‘Three-dimensional printing may have little in common with sustainability—at first blush, anyway—but the rapid-prototyping process has a litany of surprisingly green benefits. The emerging technology, which uses ultraviolet beams to fuse layers of powdered, recyclable thermoplastic into shape, leaves behind virtually no waste. Its localized production and one-size-fits-all approach also racks up markedly fewer travel miles, requires less labor, and compresses fabrication time to a matter of hours, rather than weeks or months.” – Ecouterre. (2014) Are 3D fabrics the Future?. Available at: <; (Accessed: 31 October 2014).

The technology is being used to produce anything ranging from body parts to catwalk fashion. However, questions still remain about the range of materials which can be processed to production speeds and in case of textiles substitution can be desired properties be achieved?


Rapid Prototyping

  • this recent technology uses ultraviolet beams to fuse layers of powdered thermoplastic into shape. Products are recyclable and process leaves behind virtually no waste.
  • Production can be localised and the personalisation of the process reduces travel miles. This requires less labour and reduces manufacturing time to just hours rather than weeks or months.
  • Instead of producing textiles by the meter, then cutting sewing them, this concept has the ability to make needle and thread obsolete.
  • Multiple end uses also ensures commercially of the process.


Schmidt, M & Bitonti, F. (2013) Unknown [Online Image] Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

3D Felting

  • This recent development from disney 3D prints wool into a given shape. The felting printer prints layers of a material (in this case wool yarn) until a final object is completed



Hudson, S.(2012)Printing Teddy Bears: A Technique for 3D Printing of Soft Interactive Objects [Online Image]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

  • The aim is to create 3D items which are soft to the touch
  • Instead of extruding melted plastic filament, layer by layer. It uses yarn which is then driven down into the layers beneath it, creating an attachment via needle punching.
  • Electronic components could be printed within.
  • Researchers are now working on ways to integrate hard materials within and attached to the soft felt-like material being printed.


Inspiration From Nature



  • textiles can mimic a living bio system. Velco was the first.
  • Fasten-Air is a recent evolution of velcro in warp knitted form combining hook & lop closure with stretch.
  • Speedo’s Fastskin suit replicates the surface of shark skin via a mix of contruction & surface finish
  • Self cleaning waterproof textiles mimic the surface of a lutus leaf
  • The Stomatex product uses the principle of a leaf’s natural ability to transpire & keep dry & is used in products that are totally encase the body such as diving suits & medical joints supports. 

Bio- response Textiles

  • A pine cone inspired a fabric that becomes more open or closed in response to changes in humidity
  • Developed by Dr Kapsai in the uk the function brings automatically increased comfort in extreme conditions, especially moving between hot &cold areas.
  • Conventional fibres swell when absorbing moisture, reducing the permeability.
  • Inotek fibres do the opposite. As moisture is absorbed fibres close & reduce in volume causing the yarn to be thin. Micro air pockets are opened in the textile to increase breathability. Different areas of a product can be constructed using different functionality.


unknown, (2009), unknown [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].


  • The gecko lizard’s ability of sticking and clinging to the surfaces is being developed in fabric constructions
  • It may have the ability to replace other traditional fastenings or coat the surface of another material.
  • it can repeatedly peel and stick, uses conventional synthetics such as nylon & polyurethane can be recycled and manufactured to suit specific needs.

Oversized Stitches


Studio Aisslinger. (2014) 3D stitching POP Up Furniture. [Online Image] Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

  • Playing with size and scale to make creative and inspiring art pieces and products.
  • Oversized gauges can produce a blanket of average size. It is the act of creation of the piece and the oversized stitches that lend it a thickness and visual impact.
  • Equipment and yarn needed is big scale – such as plastic tubing for needles and untwisted wool rovings as yarn.
  • In furniture designers have referenced traditional net making &knotting, wrapping durable polyester around a steel frame.

Oversized Weaves

  • Upscaling a conventional basket weave using ropes as yarns
  • Architect Dani Marti has used this giant rug-like structure as a mould for a concrete equivalent.


Marti, D. (2010) Baroque Minimalism. [Online Image]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Flat Knitting

  • More conventional flat knitting methods have been updated by companies such as nike in their Flyknit shoes.
  • A one piece show upper that is virtually seamless is created using complex mix of flat knitting techniques to impart shape & function.
  • The finished shoe is extremely lightweight & can be customised for individual athletes.

Seamless Knitting

  • Seamless knitting is a specific knitting technology that uses specialised  circular looms to develop garments that adapt perfectly to the body, making people forget that they are actually wearing them.
  • By eliminating the fabric cutting and sewing process there is an optimisation of the production process making seamless production a lot faster than conventional.
  • There are also fewer product failures since most errors are due to seam failure.
  • More comfortable for the next to skin wear garments such as base layers can be engineered using a variety of stitch density and yarn variations for optimal performance.

Laser Welding

  • Used to cut pieces of fabric. heat weld seams together. to form smooth, flat,pliable and weatherproofed.
  • A thermo-plastic element is necessary.
  • Conventional stitching makes minute holes this allows water penetration in harsh conditions.

Smart Tailoring

  • Increases fabric efficiency by 15|% and reduces lead-time by 50% in garment manufacture.
  • It also reduces fabric waste while saving energy and water by 70 to 80%
  • By using a computer attached to the loom data such as colour related to the garment is entered and the loom produces the exact pieces
  • weaving fabric cutting and patterning happen all at once.

Zero waste Cutting

  • Designers such as Holly McQullian use digital print to create zero waste fashion pieces.
  • Estimated 10,000 tones of fabric is wasted every year in the UK. Thats 15% of fabric wastage used for making clothes.
  • The creation of a product working within the space of the fabric width, a challenging approach that directly influences the design as pattern cutting process is a primary design step.
  • Pieces of fabric are cut without leaving behind any scrapes of waste.

Laser Cutting

  • Laser cutting can also be used to create zero waste through cutting. Cutting the exact parts needed from the fabric and placing them together like a jigsaw puzzle.

Fabric Manipulation


Fonyodi, G. (2010) unknown. [Online]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]


  • Ferromagnetism is the strongest form of magnetism. It creates forces strong enough to be felt and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism encountered in everyday life.
  • Designers such as Jenny Leavy and Linda Florence have experimented with magnetism to create magical textiles.

Laser & Water Jet Cutting

  • Laser cutting seals the edges of most textiles virtually eliminating the problem of fraying. Different fibres give different results.
  • Lasers are able to cut the most detailed patterns in fine and heavy materials.
  • water Jet cutting is used when fibres are sensitive to the high temperatures generated by other methods.
  • Both have applications in a diverse number of industries from mining to aerospace where they are used for cutting, shaping, carving and reaming.
  • Fabric can be cu t& decorated in one process.

Laser Decoration 

  • A variety of patterning is achievable using laser techniques. Synthetics and leather leaves a clean smooth cut, while natural fibres will fray slightly & can sometimes show slight singe marks.
  • Security markings can be placed onto a fabric warp prior to weaving. This will only be disclosed under UV light & will authenticate a genuine branded piece.


Laser Cutting Textile/Fashion Design

























Hur, E. (2010) Nomadic Wonderland. [Online]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

This project of Eunsuk Hur is called “Nomadic Wonderland”, that is inspired by plants ,animals and our environments. She is thinking about the outcome that garments are growth in a worn way. She makes a textile on wall or as garment ro scarf to present this situation. She creates an outcome present her deeply consideration about the damage of our environment. Creating textiles that are irresistibly touchable, and textiles that can be interchangeable. She applied laser cutting, acid painting and etching in her fabric ,making the textile in 3 dimensional.


Fonyodi, G. (2010) unknown. [Online]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Hudson, S.(2012)Printing Teddy Bears: A Technique for 3D Printing of Soft Interactive Objects [Online Image]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Hur, E. (2010) Nomadic Wonderland. [Online]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Marti, D. (2010) Baroque Minimalism. [Online Image]. Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Polvinen, E, (2012), Virtual Fashion Technology [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].

Schmidt, M & Bitonti, F. (2013) Unknown [Online Image] Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Studio Aisslinger. (2014) 3D stitching POP Up Furniture. [Online Image] Available at: <; [Accessed 31 October 2014]

Thompson, L, (2010), Fabrican [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].

unknown, (2009), unknown [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].

unknown, (2011), 3D mesh fabric [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 14].